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Research
Article Critique, Part Two
The Effect of Reported Sleep, Perceived Fatigue, and Sleepiness on
Cognitive Performance in a Sample of Emergency Nurses
(Wolf, Perhats, Delao, & Martinovich, 2017)Instructions: A major skill that is learned in this course
is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles. The purpose for critiquing an article is to
critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the
assigned article. This is an information-intensive, time-intensive process that
is not learned overnight. To
demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this
open-book multiple choice assignment.
Here’s how you should approach completing this weeks assignment to
finish critiquing an article:
1. First, do your assigned reading in Grove,
Gray, and Burns (2015) and complete the reading worksheets early in the
week. This will introduce you to the
critique skills you will need for the week.
2. Skim the entire instructor assigned research
article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an
idea of what it is about. Lightly cross
out the abstract for the article (you won’t be using it). Then, for this week,
re-read carefully from the studys methods section through the end of the
article.
3. Print this document and find the best answer
to each question below based on your Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) assigned
reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research
article.
4. Some of the questions in the critique
assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the
question in your textbook. Some examples
of these terms might be: power analysis, inter-rater reliability, and generalization.
You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or
critique) of a quantitative research article.
5. Once you have
completed this assignment on paper, go into blackboard and enter your answers
by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus. Ignore any wording from Blackboard that
indicates that this is a test and carefully enter your answers from this
document.
6. You will have two access attempts to record
your answers. This is given to you so
that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you
would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so. You will not be able to see the questions
that you missed when you submit your attempt.
Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.
If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your
group discussion board for help. Please do not post the exact question from
the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute
academic dishonesty.
Questions 1 – 9:
Sample. (For help with these questions,
refer to chapters: 9 & 12)
1.What
sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?
a.Simple random sampling
b.Systematic sampling
c.Convenience sampling
d.Network sampling
2.According
to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), what are the potential biases of this
sampling method?
a.This is a strong probability sampling
method with very little potential for bias.
b.This method is used when an ordered list
of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not
equal chance for inclusion in the study.
c.This method provides little opportunity
to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because
they happen to be in the right place at the right time.
d.This method is specific to the
individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized
to others who don’t share these types of experiences.
e.None of the above biases best describe
the sampling method chosen by the author.
3.What
was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?
a.2,010 participants
b.2,419 participants
c.1,506 participants
d.504 participants
4.Was a
power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of
the power analysis?
a.The authors mention that a power
analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, an alpha value of 0.05, and a
moderate effect size of 0.30.
b.The authors mention that an a priori
power analysis was conducted, and 1500 subjects were determined to be needed
for the study.
c.The authors do not report that a power
analysis was conducted.
5.Which
of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for
the sample in the research article? (Select all that apply)
a.Able to understand English
b.At least 25 years of age or older
c.Report fatigue symptoms
d.Working at least 1 shift per week in
the ED
6.Which
of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically
identified by the author for the sample in the research article?
a.Under treatment for stress related
illness.
b.Did not complete the surveys in one
sitting.
c.No exclusion criteria were described.
d.Must have a minimum of 12 months of ED experience.
7.What
is the acceptance rate for this
study? (Hint: see page 253 in your text)
a.1506/2010 X 100% = 74.92%
b.504/1506 X 100% = 33.5%%
c.unknown / cannot be calculated
d.100%
8.Which
of the following would be accurate for the attrition
rate for this study?
a.1506/2010 X 100% = 74.92%
b.0%
c.2010 / 2419 X 100% = 83%
d.100%
9.What
was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and
indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.
a.The setting for this study was a
partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research
design.
b.The setting for this study was a
natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
c.The setting for this study was a highly
controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
d.The setting for this study was not well
described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this
study.
Question 10 – 14:
Measurement Methods. (For help with
these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)
10.Which
ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this
research study? (Select all that apply)
a.Attitude regarding Chronic Illness
Questionnaire
b.The Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion
Recovery Questionnaire
c.Epworth Sleepiness Scale
d. TimedMedication Calculation
e.The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
f.Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire
11.How do
the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index?
a.They compared the odd and even
questions on the test to determine their equivalence.
b.A team of staff nurses was trained by
the primary investigator to ensure that all physiologic measurements were taken
using the same methods.
c.They tested the current group of
subjects using two different versions of the same questionnaire (alternate
forms reliability).
d.They computed a Cronbach’s alpha on the
questionnaire that was administered to this group of subjects.
12.How do
the authors describe the validity of the The
Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Questionnaireused in this study?
a.The
The Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Questionnaire was examined by
face, construct, and discriminant validity methods.
b.The
The Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Questionnaire was examined by
convergence and divergent validity methods.
c.The questionnaires were reviewed by
five experts prior to being used in this study.
d.The readability levels were identified
prior to being used in this study.
13.What
types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?
(Select all that apply)
a.The author developed the Pittsburgh Aleep Quality Index.
b.The authors developed their own
questions to ask about demographic information.
c.Interviews were reportedly used, but
the author does not explain what was included in them.
d.The authors used previously developed
questionnaires or surveys and modified to reflect the needs of the Emergency
Nurse to measure the study variables.
e. The
authors developed their own questions to assess timed cognitive performance.
e.This study did not use any
questionnaires or surveys.
14.Were
any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of
this study?
a.Yes
b.No
Question 15- 16:
Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)
15.Which
of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?
(Select all that apply)
a.Participants were contacted by phone by
nurse researcher.
b.Participants were given the
questionnaires on enrollment in the study
c.Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to
the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.
d.Research assistants consented
participants after screening for cognitive deficits.
e.Questionnaires were distributed through
a Web-based platform.
16.Based
on the study’s data collection methods, if there were more than one data
collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important
concept for the authors to report on for this study?
a.Yes, and the authors reported their
efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
b.Yes, but the authors do not discuss any
efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
c.No, the issue of inter-rater
reliability does not apply here.
Question 17 –
19: Data Analysis. (For help with these
questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)
17.What
descriptive statistics are used in this study? (Select all that apply)
a.mean
b.median
c.frequencies
d.standard deviation
e.percentage distributions
f.range
g.Pearson correlations
18.What
inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the
subjects?
(Select all that apply)
a.Pearson correlations
b.Factor Analysis
c.t-Test
d.Cox regression analysis
e.ANCOVA
f.ANOVA
g.Logistical regression analysis
h. z score
h.None of the above inferential
statistics were used in this study.
19.What
is the level of significance (alpha level) set at for this study?
a..01 or 1%
b..05 or 5%
c..10 or 10%
d.An alpha level or level of significance
chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the
article.
Question 20-25:
Researchers Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions,
refer to chapters 11 & 12)
20.There
are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these
statements from the article would be considered a significant result? (Select all that
apply)
a.Nurses working 7AM to 7PM were more
likely to give an incorrect dose calculations.
b.ED nurses self-report that they have
some difficulty providing safe care when fatigued.
c. Most nurses (> 60%) reported moderate to high
levels of fatigue.
d.Night shift nurses had poorer response
on accuracy on doseage calculations than day shift nurses.
21.Which one
of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result?
a.There was a relationship between an
individuals’ stress and fatigue and response accuracy.
b.ENs who work second jobs or are
caregivers completed the problem sets faster and more accurately than those who
do not work more than one job or are caregivers.
c.Nurses working 7AM to 7PM were more
likely to give an incorrect dose calculations.
d.There was no significant effect of
shift type on the time in minutes
that it took to complete the medication problems.
22.Which
one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important? (Select all that
apply)
a.EN Nurses self-report that they have
some difficulty providing safe care when fatigued.
b.Administrators can use this information
to help identify individuals who may be at risk for medication errors.
c.The differences between day and night
shift performance may be due to environmental stress factors.
d.Institutional Review Board (IRB)
approval was obtained from university and hospital institutional review boards.
23.Which
statements below, as reported by the author, would be considered a limitation of the study? (Select all that
apply)
a.The use of a convenience sample of decreases
sample bias.
b. These study instruments have not been used in
other studies on work-related fatigue in ENs.
c.Results using self-report data may decrease
accuracy and validity.
d.The longitudinal design does not allow
for assessment of changes in variables over time.
e. The
hypotheses that work related fatigue has an effect on cognitive function cannot
be supported due to lack of data on when the questionnaires were completed.
24.Which
of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results? (Select all that
apply)
a.The sample inclusion criterion included
critical care nurses and therefore decreases the ability to generalize to all EN
nurses.
b.Cannot be generalized to non-English
speaking individuals.
c.The Epworth
Sleepiness Scale has demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in in
this study; as such, the results of this study can be generalized across all nursing
populations.
d. The recruitment method of theseEN nurses
was not well described and therefore results should be interpreted with caution
to all other EN nurses.
25.Which
of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies? (Select all that apply)
a.The study should be performed with an
educational intervention to teach nurse managers and leaders about the risks of
fatigue.
b. Further research on the effect of ENs work
schedules, physical and emotional fatigue, patterns and quality of sleep, and
workplace conditions on their ability to safely and effectively perform their
jobs in the high-demand environment of the ED is required.
c.Given the considerable costs of
work-related fatigue further research is warranted using chronobiological
objective sleep measures to more effectively evaluate the effects of sleep
deprivation.
d.The frequent extension of 12-hour
shifts, inadequate time off between shifts, and constant exposure to demanding
work may have contributed to difficulties with performing some nursing tasks.
Research
Article Critique, Part TwoThe Effect of Reported Sleep, Perceived Fatigue, and Sleepiness on
Cognitive Performance in a Sample of Emergency Nurses(Wolf, Perhats, Delao, & Martinovich, 2017)Instructions: A major skill that is learned in this course
is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles. The purpose for critiquing an article is to
critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the
assigned article. This is an information-intensive, time-intensive process that
is not learned overnight. To
demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this
open-book multiple choice assignment.Here’s how you should approach completing this weeks assignment to
finish critiquing an article:1. First, do your assigned reading in Grove,
Gray, and Burns (2015) and complete the reading worksheets early in the
week. This will introduce you to the
critique skills you will need for the week.2. Skim the entire instructor assigned research
article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an
idea of what it is about. Lightly cross
out the abstract for the article (you won’t be using it). Then, for this week,
re-read carefully from the studys methods section through the end of the
article.3. Print this document and find the best answer
to each question below based on your Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) assigned
reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research
article.4. Some of the questions in the critique
assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the
question in your textbook. Some examples
of these terms might be: power analysis, inter-rater reliability, and generalization.
You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or
critique) of a quantitative research article.5. Once you have
completed this assignment on paper, go into blackboard and enter your answers
by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus. Ignore any wording from Blackboard that
indicates that this is a test and carefully enter your answers from this
document. 6. You will have two access attempts to record
your answers. This is given to you so
that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you
would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so. You will not be able to see the questions
that you missed when you submit your attempt.
Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your
group discussion board for help. Please do not post the exact question from
the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute
academic dishonesty.Questions 1 – 9:
Sample. (For help with these questions,
refer to chapters: 9 & 12)1.What
sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?a.Simple random samplingb.Systematic samplingc.Convenience samplingd.Network sampling2.According
to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), what are the potential biases of this
sampling method?a.This is a strong probability sampling
method with very little potential for bias.b.This method is used when an ordered list
of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not
equal chance for inclusion in the study.c.This method provides little opportunity
to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because
they happen to be in the right place at the right time.d.This method is specific to the
individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized
to others who don’t share these types of experiences.e.None of the above biases best describe
the sampling method chosen by the author.3.What
was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?a.2,010 participantsb.2,419 participantsc.1,506 participantsd.504 participants4.Was a
power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of
the power analysis?a.The authors mention that a power
analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, an alpha value of 0.05, and a
moderate effect size of 0.30.b.The authors mention that an a priori
power analysis was conducted, and 1500 subjects were determined to be needed
for the study.c.The authors do not report that a power
analysis was conducted.5.Which
of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for
the sample in the research article? (Select all that apply)a.Able to understand Englishb.At least 25 years of age or olderc.Report fatigue symptomsd.Working at least 1 shift per week in
the ED6.Which
of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically
identified by the author for the sample in the research article?a.Under treatment for stress related
illness.b.Did not complete the surveys in one
sitting.c.No exclusion criteria were described.d.Must have a minimum of 12 months of ED experience.7.What
is the acceptance rate for this
study? (Hint: see page 253 in your text)a.1506/2010 X 100% = 74.92%b.504/1506 X 100% = 33.5%%c.unknown / cannot be calculatedd.100%8.Which
of the following would be accurate for the attrition
rate for this study?a.1506/2010 X 100% = 74.92%b.0%c.2010 / 2419 X 100% = 83%d.100%9.What
was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and
indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.a.The setting for this study was a
partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research
design.b.The setting for this study was a
natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.c.The setting for this study was a highly
controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.d.The setting for this study was not well
described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this
study.Question 10 – 14:
Measurement Methods. (For help with
these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)10.Which
ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this
research study? (Select all that apply)a.Attitude regarding Chronic Illness
Questionnaireb.The Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion
Recovery Questionnairec.Epworth Sleepiness Scaled. TimedMedication Calculatione.The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Indexf.Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire11.How do
the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index?a.They compared the odd and even
questions on the test to determine their equivalence.b.A team of staff nurses was trained by
the primary investigator to ensure that all physiologic measurements were taken
using the same methods.c.They tested the current group of
subjects using two different versions of the same questionnaire (alternate
forms reliability).d.They computed a Cronbach’s alpha on the
questionnaire that was administered to this group of subjects.12.How do
the authors describe the validity of the The
Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Questionnaireused in this study?a.The
The Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Questionnaire was examined by
face, construct, and discriminant validity methods.b.The
The Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Questionnaire was examined by
convergence and divergent validity methods.c.The questionnaires were reviewed by
five experts prior to being used in this study.d.The readability levels were identified
prior to being used in this study.13.What
types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?(Select all that apply)a.The author developed the Pittsburgh Aleep Quality Index.b.The authors developed their own
questions to ask about demographic information.c.Interviews were reportedly used, but
the author does not explain what was included in them.d.The authors used previously developed
questionnaires or surveys and modified to reflect the needs of the Emergency
Nurse to measure the study variables.e. The
authors developed their own questions to assess timed cognitive performance.e.This study did not use any
questionnaires or surveys.14.Were
any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of
this study?a.Yesb.NoQuestion 15- 16:
Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)15.Which
of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?(Select all that apply)a.Participants were contacted by phone by
nurse researcher.b.Participants were given the
questionnaires on enrollment in the studyc.Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to
the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.d.Research assistants consented
participants after screening for cognitive deficits.e.Questionnaires were distributed through
a Web-based platform.16.Based
on the study’s data collection methods, if there were more than one data
collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important
concept for the authors to report on for this study?a.Yes, and the authors reported their
efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.b.Yes, but the authors do not discuss any
efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.c.No, the issue of inter-rater
reliability does not apply here.Question 17 –
19: Data Analysis. (For help with these
questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)17.What
descriptive statistics are used in this study? (Select all that apply)a.meanb.medianc.frequenciesd.standard deviatione.percentage distributionsf.rangeg.Pearson correlations18.What
inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the
subjects?(Select all that apply)a.Pearson correlationsb.Factor Analysisc.t-Testd.Cox regression analysise.ANCOVAf.ANOVAg.Logistical regression analysish. z scoreh.None of the above inferential
statistics were used in this study.19.What
is the level of significance (alpha level) set at for this study?a..01 or 1%b..05 or 5%c..10 or 10%d.An alpha level or level of significance
chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the
article.Question 20-25:
Researchers Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions,
refer to chapters 11 & 12)20.There
are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these
statements from the article would be considered a significant result? (Select all that
apply)a.Nurses working 7AM to 7PM were more
likely to give an incorrect dose calculations.b.ED nurses self-report that they have
some difficulty providing safe care when fatigued.c. Most nurses (> 60%) reported moderate to high
levels of fatigue.d.Night shift nurses had poorer response
on accuracy on doseage calculations than day shift nurses.21.Which one
of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result?a.There was a relationship between an
individuals’ stress and fatigue and response accuracy.b.ENs who work second jobs or are
caregivers completed the problem sets faster and more accurately than those who
do not work more than one job or are caregivers.c.Nurses working 7AM to 7PM were more
likely to give an incorrect dose calculations.d.There was no significant effect of
shift type on the time in minutes
that it took to complete the medication problems.22.Which
one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important? (Select all that
apply)a.EN Nurses self-report that they have
some difficulty providing safe care when fatigued.b.Administrators can use this information
to help identify individuals who may be at risk for medication errors.c.The differences between day and night
shift performance may be due to environmental stress factors.d.Institutional Review Board (IRB)
approval was obtained from university and hospital institutional review boards.23.Which
statements below, as reported by the author, would be considered a limitation of the study? (Select all that
apply)a.The use of a convenience sample of decreases
sample bias.b. These study instruments have not been used in
other studies on work-related fatigue in ENs.c.Results using self-report data may decrease
accuracy and validity.d.The longitudinal design does not allow
for assessment of changes in variables over time.e. The
hypotheses that work related fatigue has an effect on cognitive function cannot
be supported due to lack of data on when the questionnaires were completed.24.Which
of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results? (Select all that
apply)a.The sample inclusion criterion included
critical care nurses and therefore decreases the ability to generalize to all EN
nurses.b.Cannot be generalized to non-English
speaking individuals.c.The Epworth
Sleepiness Scale has demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in in
this study; as such, the results of this study can be generalized across all nursing
populations.d. The recruitment method of theseEN nurses
was not well described and therefore results should be interpreted with caution
to all other EN nurses.25.Which
of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies? (Select all that apply)a.The study should be performed with an
educational intervention to teach nurse managers and leaders about the risks of
fatigue.b. Further research on the effect of ENs work
schedules, physical and emotional fatigue, patterns and quality of sleep, and
workplace conditions on their ability to safely and effectively perform their
jobs in the high-demand environment of the ED is required.c.Given the considerable costs of
work-related fatigue further research is warranted using chronobiological
objective sleep measures to more effectively evaluate the effects of sleep
deprivation.d.The frequent extension of 12-hour
shifts, inadequate time off between shifts, and constant exposure to demanding
work may have contributed to difficulties with performing some nursing tasks.

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